Israeli troops responded to rocket attacks from militants with airstrikes, like the one that hit this house in Gaza. In Israel, Jewish and Arab mobs rioted in the streets.  
Dan Balilty for The New York Times

After days of people peering skyward for danger, whether rockets barreling in toward cities or jets streaking out over the border into Gaza, it suddenly looks as if the most ominous battle might be taking place somewhere else entirely: the streets and sidewalks of Israel.

Gaza militants and Israeli forces have been trading fire for days now, ever since a police raid at a mosque in Jerusalem, built atop a site that is revered by both Muslims and Jews.

However deadly the rockets and missiles may be — and they have killed dozens — their victims cannot see who attacked them. The same cannot not be said of what is now happening on the streets of Israeli cities and towns, where on Wednesday Jewish and Arab mobs set upon cars, shops, offices, hotels and each other.

Many Israelis appeared stunned at the turn of events, at the brutality of the attacks, and the speed at which civil unrest has reshaped the landscape of their country. Others suggested it might simply be a bill coming due.

For years, some leaders warned that a failure to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict might one day lead to fighting within the state of Israel itself, said Tzipi Livni, a former chief negotiator for Israel in peace talks with the Palestinians.

“And this is exactly what is happening now,” she said. “What was maybe under the surface has now exploded, and created a combination that is really horrific.”

Since Monday’s raid at Al-Aqsa mosque, which the Israeli authorities said was done to rout stone-throwing protesters, over 67 Palestinians and at least six Israeli citizens have died. In response to rockets launched by Hamas militants and their allies from Gaza, Israel launched airstrikes.

Both rocket fire and missile strikes continued on Wednesday, but the attention of the Israeli government seemed to turn increasingly inward, prompted by a series of troubling episodes.

In one seaside suburb south of Tel Aviv, dozens of Jewish extremists took turns beating and kicking man presumed to be Arab, even as he lay motionless on the ground. To the north, in another coastal town, an Arab mob beat a man they thought was Jewish with sticks and rocks, leaving him in a critical condition. Nearby, an Arab mob nearly stabbed to death a man believed to be Jewish.

Some 280 people have been arrested on rioting charges across the country, and one city, Lod, in the center of the country, was declared “locked down.”

Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, called the disturbing street scenes “anarchy” and vowed to restore order to Israel’s cities “with an iron fist if necessary, with all necessary force and with all necessary authority.”

The Aqsa raid might have been the spark, but the fuel was years of anger from Israel’s Arab minority, which make up about 20 percent of the population. They have full citizenship, but rights advocates say they are victims of dozens of discriminatory regulations.

“The way that we are treated is as though we shouldn’t be here,” said Diana Buttu, a Palestinian political analyst from Haifa, a city in northern Israel, and a former legal adviser to the Palestine Liberation Organization.

World leaders have urged the combatants in Israel and Gaza to stand down, and many have condemned the Israeli airstrikes as disproportionate. But it was not clear when tensions might ease.

On Wednesday, the Israeli authorities hinted that they were prepared to send ground forces into Gaza.

An office building in Gaza was leveled in an Israeli airstrike, after residents were warned to leave. 
Hosam Salem for The New York Times

GAZA CITY — On Tuesday evening, Gazans celebrated as they heard the whoosh of rockets sent toward Israel.

But by Wednesday morning the cheers had stopped, as Gazans saw the aftermath of what some described as the most intense airstrikes since cross-border Israeli-Palestinian hostilities flared again this week.

In one neighborhood, near Zeitoun and Sabra, residents inspected their homes and neighborhoods for damage, and desperately sought information about where the missiles might strike next.

“I felt that the hits were random,” said Nadal Issa, 27, the owner of a bridal shop.

Hamas and other militants have been exchanging fire with Israel since Monday. Dozens of Palestinians have been killed in Gaza, including at least 16 children as of Wednesday night, officials said; in Israel, at least six civilians have been killed, including one child.

In Gaza, some said they had never felt anything as harrowing as the surge of Israeli strikes that came Wednesday morning.

Some said it felt as if blast waves were hitting their face and body, as if their block was under attack. Disoriented, they staggered to windows to look outside.

“My two children woke up, and they asked me, ‘What’s going on?’” Mr. Issa said. Thinking quickly, he reminded them that the holiday marking the end of Ramadan was near. “I told them these are celebrations for Eid.”

Mohammed Sabtie, a 30-year-old motorcycle mechanic, was among the Gazans who left their homes after the airstrikes subsided Wednesday morning to see the damage.

“The sound was very, very horrific,” Mr. Sabtie said. “It was like a state of war. It was the first time I ever heard anything like this.”

Was he scared? Yes, he said, but also glad to see Palestinians fighting back.

“Our ambitions are not war,” Mr. Sabtie said. “Our ambitions are security and peace. We have to do this. We don’t want to be hit and insulted. We want to hit back.”

The United States Embassy in Jerusalem, in 2018.
Valery SharifulinTASS, via Getty Images

The United States Embassy in Jerusalem has warned its staff members and their families to stay close to home or near bomb shelters because of the heightened threat of rocket attacks from Palestinian militants in Gaza, barely 40 miles away.

The warning, issued Wednesday and posted on the embassy’s website, came as the crisis engulfing Israel and the Palestinian territories escalated to the most violent in years.

“Rockets continue to impact the Gaza periphery and areas across Southern and Central Israel,” read the alert. It advised diplomats and their relatives to remain in safe surroundings at least until May 17.

The embassy itself is contentious, having been moved to Jerusalem from Tel Aviv by President Donald J. Trump three years ago over the strenuous objections of the Palestinians, who saw the change as an endorsement of Israel’s claim to the entire city as its capital. Israel captured the eastern part of the city in the 1967 war, and its occupation is not internationally recognized.

The Palestinians want East Jerusalem as their capital under a long-proposed two-state solution to the conflict. Most foreign embassies in Israel remain in Tel Aviv, partly because of Jerusalem’s disputed status.

While the Biden administration has pledged a more evenhanded approach to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict than that of its predecessor, which heavily favored the Israeli side, there is no expectation the embassy will be moved back to Tel Aviv.

The embassy was part of a jarring juxtaposition when it held a celebratory opening on May 14, 2018. While Mr. Trump’s daughter, Ivanka, and other American officials were toasting the relocation, Israeli soldiers and snipers were using tear gas and live gunfire to drive back hundreds of Palestinian demonstrators on the Gaza side of the border.

Several Islamist terror organizations take their name from Al-Aqsa, a holy site in Jerusalem., 
Ahmad Gharabli/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

Instagram removed some posts and restricted access to other content that used hashtags related to the Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem after having mistakenly associated the name with a terrorist organization, according to an internal company message.

The error, acknowledged by Facebook, which owns Instagram, added a new irritant to the crisis currently roiling Jerusalem and spreading elsewhere in Israel and the occupied territories. The crisis began over an Israeli police crackdown around the mosque, built atop a site holy to Muslims and Jews.

Facebook said in the message that while “Al-Aqsa” often refers to the mosque, “it is also unfortunately included in the names of several restricted organizations.” Although the company did not identify those groups, the State Department has designated the Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade as a foreign terrorist organization, and several other groups with “Al-Aqsa” in their names have had sanctions imposed on them by the United States.

As a result, the company said, some content related to the Aqsa Mosque was mistakenly removed or restricted.

“I want to apologize for the frustration these mistakes have caused,” a Facebook employee who works on the issue of “dangerous organizations” wrote to employees in an internal message that Facebook shared with The New York Times. “I want to reaffirm that these removals are strictly enforcement errors. We understand the vital importance of the Al-Aqsa mosque to Palestinians and the Muslim community around the world.”

The restrictions, previously reported by BuzzFeed News, had fueled criticism that Instagram and other social media platforms were censoring Palestinian voices after a raid by the Israeli police on the mosque left hundreds of Palestinians and a score of police officers wounded.

Facebook’s internal message said the company was making changes to ensure that the term “Al-Aqsa” by itself does not prompt restrictions or removals.

“These mistakes are painful, erode the trust of our community and there is no easy fix for that,” the Facebook employee wrote. “While I cannot promise that future errors will not occur — I can promise that we are working earnestly to ensure that we are not censoring salient political and social voices in Jerusalem and around the world.”

Twitter, which had also been accused of unfairly blocking Palestinian content, said in a statement that it uses a combination of technology and people to enforce its rules.

“In certain cases, our automated systems took enforcement action on a small number of accounts in error through an automated spam filter,” Twitter said in a statement. “We expeditiously reversed these actions to reinstate access to the affected accounts.”

Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel declared a state of emergency in the city of Lod on Wednesday. His political opponents blame him for the rising violence.
Ahmad Gharabli/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

JERUSALEM — When it’s guns doing the talking, Israel’s usual political clamor typically shushes up.

This time? It’s different.

As the conflict with Gaza inflicted more death on Wednesday, a political rival of Benjamin Netanyahu blamed the prime minister for the escalating violence and said he was working to replace him.

Yair Lapid, the centrist leader of the opposition, said the conflict “can be no excuse for keeping Netanyahu and his government in place. Quite the opposite,” Mr. Lapid wrote in a statement on Facebook. “They are exactly the reason why he should be replaced as soon as possible.”

The crisis, in which dozens have been killed, has occurred at a key moment in Israeli politics.

After Mr. Netanyahu failed to form a government following the fourth elections in two years, Mr. Lapid was given his chance.

The bloodshed makes Mr. Lapid’s efforts to forge a coalition government both simpler and more difficult.

On one hand, Mr. Netanyahu’s detractors now have even more incentive to oust him.

But at the same time, the violence has highlighted the profound differences between the parties of the anti-Netanyahu camp, which span the political spectrum from left to right.

One of the keys to a possible anti-Netanyahu coalition is held by Mansour Abbas, the head of a small, Arab Islamist party known as Raam that currently holds the balance in Parliament.

After negotiations with Mr. Netanyahu failed, Mr. Abbas began cooperating with Mr. Lapid. Then, as religious tensions soared in Jerusalem over the last week, Mr. Abbas suspended Raam’s participation in coalition talks.

Many analysts believe the violence places new obstacles to Mr. Abbas’s joining a coalition. His backing a government that includes right-wing Israelis has become tougher for much of his constituency to accept, and the right-wing flank of the anti-Netanyahu camp would be reluctant to partake in a government reliant on Arab support.

Reuven Hazan, a professor of political science at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, said the recent events were sure to make it harder for the various parties trying to find a way to oust Mr. Netanyahu to work together.

“If the opposing ideologies meant they had one hand tied behind their back,” said Professor Hazan, “now they have both hands tied behind their back.”