Members of the European Union are welcoming vaccinated travelers, including Americans. But there are still rules and restrictions to abide by. Here’s how to navigate them and what to expect.

The European Union on May 19 agreed to reopen its borders to fully vaccinated travelers, including Americans, and people from a list of Covid-safe countries that will be determined later this week ahead of the summer tourism season.

Visitors from outside the bloc who have received E.U.-approved vaccines — including those from Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson — will be allowed to enter European Union countries without having to take a test or quarantine upon arrival.

The new measures could go into effect as early as next week, after E.U. leaders give formal approval and individual countries set up systems to check vaccination status. While the E.U. aims to take a coordinated approach to travel this summer, member states will be allowed to set their own requirements for travelers from individual countries based on their own epidemiological criteria.

Some European countries are already allowing in American travelers with vaccine or testing requirements. Here is a guide to six of the continent’s most popular tourist destinations, explaining what is required for entry and what to expect if you do visit. (This list will be updated as countries change their policies and when others open their borders.) Ceylan Yeginsu

Tourists take in the walled city of Dubrovnik in Croatia. 
Laura Boushnak for The New York Times

Like other countries in Europe, Croatia experienced a third wave that appears to have peaked in April. Since then, daily cases have steadily decreased. Croatia’s Institute of Public Health tracks cases on this website but doesn’t provide figures on deaths. According to World Health Organization data, from May 10 to May 16 Croatia had 239 Covid-related deaths (daily average: 34) and 5,896 new cases (daily average: 842). About 31 percent of adults in Croatia have had at least one vaccine dose while nearly 10 percent have been fully vaccinated, according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.

Unlike some other European countries, Croatia makes no distinction between tourists and other travelers, applying the same conditions for leisure travel, essential family and business. Visitors from the European countries on the E.C.D.C.’s so-called green list (which varies constantly) can travel without restrictions. Those coming from European countries not on the green list must provide one of the following: a negative Covid test, proof of vaccination or a certificate of recovery. Finally, visitors from outside Europe must provide the same evidence (either a negative Covid test, a vaccination certificate or a certificate of recovery) and provide evidence of accommodations paid in advance or proof that they own property in Croatia, according to the government website. Travelers are advised to fill out the Enter Croatia form to speed up the process.

On June 1, Croatia and six other E.U. states began issuing vaccination certificates to citizens, and accepting them from visitors, to better streamline travel within the bloc. The free certificate, featuring a QR code, is available in digital or paper form, and indicates if a traveler is fully vaccinated against Covid-19, recovered from the disease or has received a negative virus test result. The rollout of the certificate program for the entire bloc (27 countries) is expected July 1. It is not yet available to travelers from the United States.

Currently, no direct flights operate between Croatia and the United States, but United Airlines and Delta Air Lines will launch seasonal direct flights from Newark Liberty International Airport and Kennedy International Airport in July, said Ina Rodin, an official with the Croatian National Tourist Office.

Croatia has universal health care and the quality of medical facilities are in line with European standards. Rapid antigen and PCR tests are widely available, with contact information listed on Croatia’s Institute of Public Health website. Those who develop symptoms of Covid-19 while in Croatia should contact a Covid-dedicated call center by dialing 113 or one of the designated medical facilities.

Laura Boushnak for The New York Times

Bars and restaurants can operate but customers must be seated outside. The only indoor dining allowed is in hotels. There is a 10 p.m. curfew for shops, restaurants and other businesses. While beaches, thermal spas, parks, zoos and most museums are open, nightclubs are closed.

The general mood seems relaxed, and people seem eager to return to quasi-normal life and welcome tourists. Croatia’s economy heavily relies on tourism, accounting for almost 20 percent of the country’s gross domestic product according to 2018 data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

“Most people have a normal social life,” said Kresimira Kruslin, 30, a lawyer in Zagreb. “The general feeling is very optimistic. Young people feel comfortable going out for drinks and things like that,” she said. “Some people are more cautious than others, but I don’t know anyone who is scared.” Anna Momigliano

Joann Pai for The New York Times

France’s positivity rate and case numbers have dropped steadily over the past month, thanks to the country’s accelerating vaccination campaign and a national lockdown that was announced at the end of March. As of May 17, the seven-day average for daily new confirmed cases was just over 14,000, down from more than 45,000 one month earlier. The share of tests that are positive has similarly dropped from around 10 percent to 4.5 percent over the same period. And after a slow start, the pace of the vaccination campaign has recently picked up. As of May 17, nearly 31 percent of the French population had received at least one dose of vaccine, and 14 percent were fully vaccinated. Universal adult eligibility for vaccination will open up on May 31.

President Emmanuel Macron has announced that, beginning June 9, visitors from outside Europe will once again be allowed entry into France, provided that they carry a pass sanitaire (health pass) and that the public health situation in their country of origin meets certain standards. Passengers arriving from the United States and other countries on France’s “orange list” will be required to show proof of vaccination as well as a recent negative virus test. Further details are expected soon. In the meantime, Americans wishing to travel to France can check the website of the U.S. embassy in France for more information.

Pressure on France’s health system has eased considerably, with the number of patients in the country’s intensive care units dropping from a high of more than 6,000 on April 26 to just over 4,000 on May 18. In a move that should appeal to tourists and public health officials alike, France will make PCR tests available to all visitors free of charge this summer, France’s European affairs minister, Clément Beaune, recently told an interviewer. Anyone who tests positive should isolate and call a local doctor’s office if needed; for medical emergencies, dial 15.

Joann Pai for The New York Times

Nonessential stores are reopening, outdoor dining has started, and the national curfew has been pushed back from 7 p.m. to 9 p.m. Museums like the Louvre and the Musée d’Orsay are also opening their doors, as are theaters, movie theaters and cultural sites across the country, including the Château de Versailles and the Mont-Saint-Michel Abbey. Disneyland Paris will reopen on June 17. The next easing of nationwide restrictions will come on June 9, when France’s curfew will be rolled back to 11 p.m., and limited indoor dining will be permitted. The last of the major restrictions will be lifted on June 30, when the curfew will be abolished and larger gatherings will be allowed, opening the door for the summer festival season. But even after all of the lockdown measures have been eased, visitors to France should expect to encounter mask requirements and social distancing measures, including limited capacity at museums, restaurants, stores and other establishments.

It’s been a long spring in France, and for many here, the annual grandes vacances can’t come soon enough. Restaurants just opened for outdoor dining, and people flocked to the tables, despite chilly, rainy weather in much of the country. But the prospect of summer vacations may be as important to the national economy as it is to the French spirit. The tourism industry accounts for nearly 8 percent of France’s gross domestic product and supports some two million jobs. “We need, we want, in good health conditions, to remain the top tourist destination in Europe and the world,” Mr. Beaune, the French official, said. “This is an economic issue for us.” Paige McClanahan

Maria Mavropoulou for The New York Times

Greece is recovering steadily from its latest coronavirus wave, which reached its peak in early April. As of May 18, the average daily case count had fallen to just over 2,000, down from a peak of more than 3,000 on April 5. Similarly, the share of coronavirus tests that are positive dropped to 4.3 percent on May 13 from 6.8 percent on April 1.

Nearly 28 percent of the Greek population had received at least one dose of vaccine as of May 18, while more than 16 percent were fully vaccinated. Those who work in the country’s tourism industry have been prioritized in the vaccine rollout, as have a number of the islands. The country’s health minister announced last week that residents of tourist-heavy islands such as Mykonos, Santorini and Corfu are next in line to receive their doses.

On arrival in Athens, travelers will need to present a certificate of vaccination, a negative coronavirus test no more than 72 hours old, or proof of recovery from Covid-19 within the past nine months. Passengers may also be subject to random rapid testing at the airport; anyone who tests positive will be put up at a local hotel for at least 10 days, along with their traveling companions, at the expense of the Greek government. Details on the rules of entry can be found here. Anyone planning to fly within the country will be subject to the same requirements as those arriving from abroad.

Greece, like Croatia and five other members of the European Union, began offering vaccination certificates to its citizens on June 1. The certificate program is not yet available to travelers from the United States.

Greece’s medical facilities, which have struggled from years of underfunding, were severely strained during the recent spring Covid-19 wave, but the pressures have eased over the past few weeks. Seventy-eight percent of Greece’s intensive care beds were occupied as of May 12, down from 88 percent in late April, according to the Greek government’s Covid Observatory. Any visitor who tests positive while in Greece should self isolate and contact a local doctor’s office if needed; in a medical emergency, dial 166.

Maria Mavropoulou for The New York Times

Life in Greece is beginning to feel normal again as the government peels away the various restrictions of the country’s months-long lockdown. Outdoor archaeological sites reopened earlier this spring, while restaurants and cafes once again began offering outdoor service (with a maximum of six people per table) on May 3. Greece’s museums have been open to all — with masks required and social distancing measures in place — since May 14. Open-air cinemas kicked off their summer season on May 21, while spas, wellness centers and outdoor theaters are scheduled to reopen before the end of the month. A pared-down curfew remains in place, from 12:30 a.m. to 5 a.m. Ferry services to the islands are up and running, with limited capacity and mask requirements.

Greece jumped ahead of many of its European neighbors in opening up to vaccinated or Covid-negative tourists from the United States and a handful of other countries. The tourism industry accounts for roughly a quarter of total employment and more than a fifth of Greece’s gross domestic product, so restarting the industry is critical to helping the country recover from 2020, when the economy shrank by 8.2 percent.

“Unfortunately, after more than 10 years of economic hardship, tourism and food is our only industry,” Kostas Tzilialis, who works at a cafe and bookshop in central Athens, said recently. “We don’t produce cars or machines. So we have to open our industry right now. Let’s hope that people will be careful and the vaccines will protect us.” Paige McClanahan

Bara Kristinsdottir for The New York Times

Since January, Iceland has had only several hundred confirmed cases of the coronavirus. The daily count is currently in the single digits, after a relatively sharp rise in mid-April (peaking at 27 cases). As of May 20, roughly half of adult Icelanders had received at least one vaccine dose. Most fully vaccinated people are over 60; authorities expect to finish vaccinating the oldest age group, people with pre-existing medical conditions and frontline essential workers later in May. Unlike some of its Nordic neighbors, Iceland has not suspended the use of the AstraZeneca vaccine, putting its efforts ahead of the European curve.

Vaccinated visitors with an approved vaccination certificate or proof of previous infection must undergo a PCR test, which is provided free of charge at the airport, and quarantine until their test results come back negative; results are reported within 24 hours via a local tracing app.

Tourists who are not vaccinated need to quarantine for five days at a government-provided quarantine hotel (the stay is free of charge). Before arrival, they need to register and provide a negative PCR test that is no more than 72 hours old. More details on the rules of entry can be found here.

Domestic flights operate without any requirements beyond wearing a face mask, and public transport is generally on a normal schedule.

With one of the highest life expectancies in Europe, Iceland has an advanced health care system. On May 20, the country’s hospital had only four Covid patients.

In case of symptoms, visitors can call 1700 (on an Icelandic line) or +354 544 4113 (from any phone) to get tested. The local emergency number is 112.

Iceland has weathered the pandemic without ever resorting to the near-total social and economic shutdowns enforced in many other European countries. The success is partly a testament to its tiny population — about 360,000 people — but is also the result of decisive action by authorities, with rapid testing available early in the crisis. The country’s strict requirements still make it hard for everyone but vaccinated people to visit.

Gyms, pubs, restaurants, museums — just about everything — remain open, with limitations on late hours and crowds. Mask-wearing is required indoors and is strictly enforced.

Tourism is the island’s largest job sector and the economic pain has been felt particularly by the thousands of migrants who came to Iceland during the previous boom years. While the unemployment rate is expected to remain high this year, local business leaders claim traffic is improving by the week.

On a recent chilly morning in the northern town of Husavik, two American tourists, Kevin Campbell and Susan Montgomery, from Oregon, were on their sixth — “or seventh” — trip to Iceland. “Locals value the presence of tourists these days,” Mr. Campbell, 69, said. Earlier that morning they had tried to enter Husavik’s iconic wooden church, but the door was locked. “Then a lady from a nearby store came running with a key this big,” Mr. Campbell said — indicating with his hands something that was the size of a milk carton — “and showed us inside.”

On Husavik’s harbor — made famous when the town was featured in the Netflix film “Eurovision Song Contest: The Story of Fire Saga” — two rival whale-watching companies were competing for business. Nearby, restaurants offered multiple versions of fish, with one chalkboard highlighting the word “fresh.” Egill Bjarnason

Susan Wright for The New York Times

Italy seems to be exiting a third wave of the pandemic that appears to have peaked in March. New cases and deaths are in constant decline. From May 10 to May 16, Italy had 1,369 deaths (daily average 195) and about 50,453 new cases (daily average 7,207), according to W.H.O. data. Hospitalizations have gone down by 49 percent in the past month, according to the Italian research foundation, Gimbe.

More than 17 percent of adults are fully vaccinated and 38 percent are at least partially vaccinated, according to the E.C.D.C.

Italy makes a distinction between tourists and those traveling for other reasons, such as businesspeople or students. Visitors from Europe, Israel and Britain can visit Italy without quarantining, regardless of their reason, but need to take a coronavirus test. Visitors from the United States and other non-European countries that are considered low risk (Japan, Canada, Australia and Singapore) can also come regardless of their motivation, but need both a coronavirus test and a 10-day-quarantine. Americans avoid the quarantine if they take special “Covid-tested flights” that require taking a test both before and after the flight, and submitting an E.U. digital passenger locator form. These Covid-tested flights are already available from New York and Atlanta to Milan and Rome, and will soon be offered to Venice and Naples. From countries considered high risk, only travel for essential reasons (such as business, study or medical care) is allowed, and no travel is allowed from India and Brazil.

Italy has one of Europe’s best health care systems. When northern Italy was severely hit in March and April 2020, hospitals were overwhelmed but that is no longer the case. The percentage of intensive care units taken over by Covid patients is declining and is now at 23 percent, according to statistics compiled by Gimbe, the research foundation.

Susan Wright for The New York Times

Italy regulates restrictions with a system that places each of its 20 regions on a white-yellow-orange-red scale, which can at times result in significant differences across the country. Currently most of Italy is listed as “yellow,” with minor restrictions. Bars and restaurants are open for outdoor service (indoor service will be allowed from June 1). There is currently an 11 p.m. curfew, but on June 7 the curfew will be pushed back to midnight and, if the virus continues to abate, the curfew will be repealed by the end of June. Museums and theaters are open, but at a reduced capacity. Masks are mandatory for anyone above age 6, outdoors and indoors. Theme parks will open in June.

The mood is mixed with optimism, pandemic fatigue and excitement. On May 4 Prime Minister Mario Draghi gave a speech that energized the climate: “It’s time to book your vacations in Italy, we can’t wait to welcome you again,” he said, referring to international tourists.

Those working in the tourism industry say it worked. “Draghi’s announcement energized the bookings, we saw an increase just the day after,” said Giuseppe Artolli, 62, who manages COMO Castello del Nero, a castle-turned-hotel in Chianti.

Carlo Dalla Chiesa, 43, manages Milan’s youth hostel Ostello Bello, a popular destination for young international travelers but also a place where locals go for their aperitif. Even though the hostel lost 97 percent of revenue during the pandemic, he said the owners feel very optimistic and now are expanding their business in Rome, Florence, Genoa and Palermo. He is convinced that youth tourism is going to boom more than “adult” tourism.

Bradley Secker for The New York Times

“It feels like 1989, when the Berlin Wall fell and suddenly all the young folks from East Berlin started to travel,” he said. “Just think of the kids who are 20 right now, and have spent two years in lockdowns, now they’re going to want to travel a lot, and on a budget.” Anna Momigliano

Infections and deaths in Turkey from the coronavirus have been declining steadily following a strict three-week national lockdown, which is expected to be lifted gradually through May.

Turkey so far has fully vaccinated about 15 percent of its population of 83 million people; about 20 percent have received their first dose, according to Our World in Data, an online compendium of data from global sources.

While the country is currently facing a vaccine shortage, forcing it to delay the administration of second doses, the health minister, Fahrettin Koca, said Turkey had secured 120 million doses of Pfizer-BioNTech and 50 million doses of Sputnik vaccines and will accelerate its vaccine campaign in June.

Turkey has remained open to tourists, including Americans, throughout the pandemic. Most international arrivals are required to show proof of a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours of their arrival into the country.

Coronavirus tests are not required for passengers arriving from places that Turkey considers epidemiologically safe, which include Hong Kong, China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, Thailand, South Korea, Israel, Japan, Latvia, Luxembourg, Ukraine and Estonia.

Passengers arriving from Brazil, South Africa and India will be required to quarantine for 14 days in government-assigned accommodations and will be released if they test negative for the virus after day 10.

Turkey offers health insurance packages starting at as little as $15 that cover foreign visitors for Covid-19 treatment and hospitalization for up to 30 days. The country treats coronavirus patients in both public and private hospitals and opened 17 new hospitals last year to provide more intensive-care capacity for Covid treatment.

Bradley Secker for The New York Times

Turkey’s economy is heavily dependent on tourism, and its response to the pandemic has been defined, in large part, by not cutting off its flow. The country has had a two-tiered system in place throughout the pandemic that exempts visitors from the strictest lockdown measures, including a curfew at night and on weekends that requires residents to stay at home.

Tourists are free to visit museums, beaches and other sites across the country. Hotels and resorts are open with capacity restrictions, and Turkey is prioritizing vaccinations for tourism workers.

On June 1, restaurants and cafes reopened for indoor and outdoor dining between 7 a.m. and 9 p.m., and takeout is available until midnight. Retail stores and shopping malls are open during the week and on Saturdays, but theaters, gyms and swimming pools remain closed.

All the restrictions are expected to be lifted at the start of the all-important tourist season in July. Ceylan Yeginsu

Tom Jamieson for The New York Times

After months of stringent lockdown measures and a swift vaccine rollout, Britain’s infection rate has been trending downward since it peaked in January, and the curve of new daily cases has flattened as of April. The country is expected to lift restrictions and see a significant return to normal daily life by June 21.

More than half of Britain’s population has received one dose of a coronavirus vaccine and the government aims to offer the rest of the adult population its first shot by the end of July. So far, 31 percent of the population has been fully vaccinated.

England has devised a “traffic light” system for foreign visitors, which determines quarantine and testing requirements depending on case numbers and the prevalence of coronavirus variants in their home countries.

Only British and Irish nationals and those with residence rights in the United Kingdom are permitted to enter England from destinations on the red list, which includes India and Brazil. Anyone who has visited or passed through a red country within 10 days of arrival is required to get a coronavirus test 72 hours before their departure and must quarantine for 10 days in a government-designated hotel, which costs about $2,400 per person traveling alone.

The United States and most European countries are currently on England’s amber list, which requires travelers to show proof of a negative virus test taken 72 hours before departure and then self-isolate at home or at a suitable hotel for 10 days after arriving in the United Kingdom.

On day two and day eight of quarantining, travelers must take PCR tests, which cost about $300 and must be purchased in advance from British authorities. Those who want to be released from self-isolation early can take an additional test through a private provider on Day 5, at a cost of about $200, but they still must take the final test on Day 8. (The cost of tests may vary when entering Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.)

Visitors from countries on England’s green list — there are currently 12, including Portugal, Australia and New Zealand — are exempt from quarantine but are required to take a PCR test before departure and two days after arrival.

The National Health Service contact tracing department carries out regular spot checks by phone and in person to ensure that passengers are complying with quarantine rules. Those found breaking them could face fines of up to $14,000 and jail time.

The traffic light system will be reviewed every three weeks with the possibility for countries to move up or down depending on how well they are containing the pandemic.

Foreign citizens visiting Britain have free access to National Health Service coronavirus testing and treatment, including hospitalization if it is required.

Tom Jamieson for The New York Times

Pubs, restaurants, theaters, museums, stores and hotels have reopened over the last three weeks, although capacity restrictions and social distancing measures still apply. While outside, most people do not wear masks, but indoors they are still expected to do so unless eating or drinking in a restaurant.

Across major cities such as London, Manchester, Brighton and Edinburgh, restaurants and bars are buzzing with people reuniting with friends and family and enjoying their newfound freedom after months of lockdown. Demand in coastal destinations like Cornwall and Dorset has soared in recent weeks as the weather warms and Britons book domestic beach vacations.

If coronavirus cases and deaths remain low in England and a new surge of the Indian variant is contained, the government aims to lift remaining coronavirus restrictions by June 21, including those on nightclubs and large events such as festivals. Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are following separate but similar timetables. Ceylan Yeginsu


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